Diversity of gender roles is astonishing. It may significantly differ depending on internal and external conditions of the country where they are practiced. Specific attention should be given to the economic and social conditions since to a major extent, they are capable of defining how gender roles will be divided within a certain society. Decades before it was thought that men have to take a greater deal and should get more responsible roles in comparison to women. Such differentiation was defined by the conditions of survival: the gathering process was considered to be an important activity, and women were mainly involved in this process while men were more involved in hunting. That is why it’s been thought that the ‘job’ of a man is much more efficient than those of a woman. Nonetheless, the rise of warfare and hunting contributed to a higher male status among food producers (Kottak 2017: 170). More significant gender differentiation has occurred due to the sharp separation of domestic and public spheres. Physiological superiority of men has been critical for defining their role and status literally in every society and that is why it allowed them to obtain better opportunities and power over women. Besides, economic factors also contributed to the stagnation of the problem. With such approach, the ration between male and female population has significantly shifted in the favor of men. Such shift has also been accelerated by the process of migration: the majority of migrants were men and it has created a gender disproportion in the newly settled lands. Men, as a result, took over the hardest jobs that required physical strength and that is why females were expected to bring up children and perform household tasks (Kottak 2017: 182). Such conditions have been lasting for decades up until the World War II that has changed the situation almost completely. Since most of the men were drafted, women had to take over their jobs to ensure that military forces will be getting all necessary supplies on time and that no shortages would have been experienced on the front-line (Kottak 2017: 187). Such situation led to the establishment of women rights and it allowed women to claim for the equality with men. Nowadays, the companies have realized the benefits of working women, so they try to provide females with better opportunities for learning and development, such as flexible working hours, social projects, childcare facilities, etc.
As it could be observed, there have been great changes for women in terms of social status and employment during the past decades. Females managed to improve their position in the community and gain the chance to choose their destiny. A lot of women prefer to develop in their careers rather than bringing up children. Nevertheless, some of them decide to combine both spheres of their life by establishing the right work-life balance (Kottak 2017:191). Obviously, both genders should have equal opportunities in society, and choose their path in life. In many industries females play a crucial role, so they can contribute to the development of the economy and improve the country’s performance in the global arena.
There are a lot of benefits of bringing women into the workplace for society. First of all, the studies have shown that females are better at building professional relationships than their male counterparts, as they have better networking skills. That is why women can create strong relationships with partners, which would foster business development. Moreover, diversity has a positive effect on the decision-making and problem-solving processes in the company. It allows managers to look at the issue from different perspectives and come to a better conclusion. However, high female employment might lead to various social problems. The more women are engaged in career development, the lower is the birth rate in the country. Modern women do not have time to bring up a lot of children, so the majority of them prefer to have only one child. Additionally, excessive work may result in a burnout, since not all women will manage to run their household and progress in their careers.
Despite all the adverse effects of female employment on the community, women should have a right to have equal opportunities with men. Female workers may bring a lot of advantages to society and provide people with new insights into various problems. Nonetheless, employers should empower females and provide them with more possibilities to combine professional and personal life. Flexible working hours, corporate kindergardens, the possibility to take time off may encourage women to establish families and bring up children.